Books and Articles

Alvarez, Javier. (1989) “Rhythm as Motion Discovered.” Contemporary Music Review, 3(1): 203-231.

D’Escrivan, Julio. (1989) “Reflections on the poetics of time in electroacoustic music.” Contemporary Music Review, 3(1): 197-201.

Johansson, J. and Molin, B. A. (1990) “Computer-Assisted Composition by Interactive Rhythm Transformations.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Glasgow, Scotland), p. 302-304.

Desain, P. and Honing, H. (1991) “Tempo Curves Considered Harmful.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Montreal, Canada).

Driesse, A. (1991) “Real-Time Tempo Tracking Using Rules to Analyze Rhythmic Qualities.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Montreal, Canada), p. 578-581.

Tanguiane, A. (1991) “Criterion of Data Complexity in Rhythm Recognition.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Montreal, Canada), p. 559-562.

Bilmes, J. (1992) “A Model for Musical Rhythm.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (San Jose, California, USA), p. 207-210.

Rosenthal, D. (1992) “Intelligent Rhythm Tracking.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (San Jose, California, USA), p. 227-230.

Desain, P. (1992) “Can Computer Music Benefit from Cognitive Models of Rhythm Perception?” In Proceedings of the ICMC (San Jose, California, USA), p. 42-45.

McAngus-Todd, N. (1993) “Wavelet Analysis of Rhythm in Expressive Musical Performance.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Waseda University, Japan), p. 264-267.

Large, E.W. (1994) “The Resonant Dynamics of Beat Tracking and Meter Perception.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (DIEM, Danish Institute of Electroacoustic Music, Denmark), p. 90-91.

Parncutt, R. (1994) “A Model of Beat Induction Accounting for Perpetual Ambiguity by Continuously Variable Parameters.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (DIEM, Danish Institute of Electroacoustic Music, Denmark), p. 83-84.

Horowitz, D. (1994) “Generating Rhythms with Genetic Algorithms.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (DIEM, Danish Institute of Electroacoustic Music, Denmark), p. 142-143.

Desain, P. and Honing, H. (1994) “Foot-tapping: a brief introduction to beat induction.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (DIEM, Danish Institute of Electronic Music, Denmark), p. 78-79.

Rosenthal, D., Goto, M. and Muraoka, Y. (1994) “Rhythm Tracking Using Multiple Hypotheses.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (DIEM, Danish Institute of Electroacoustic Music, Denmark), p. 85-87.

Todd, N. and Lee, C. (1994) “An Auditory-Motor Model of Beat Induction.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (DIEM, Danish Institute of Electroacoustic Music, Denmark), p. 88-89.

Desain, P. and Honing, H. (1994) “Advanced issues in beat induction modeling: syncopation, tempo, timing.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (DIEM, Danish Institute of Electroacoustic Music, Denmark), p. 92-94.

Goto, M. and Muraoka, Y. (1995) “A Real-Time Beat Tracking System for Audio Signals.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Banff, Alberta, Canada), p. 171-174.

Dobrian, C. (1995) “Algorithmic Generation of Temporal Forms: Hierarchical Organization of Stasis and Transition.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Banff, Alberta, Canada), p. 456-459.

Tait, C. (1995) “Audio Analysis for Rhythmic Structure.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Banff, Alberta, Canada), p. 590-591.

Smith, L. (1996) “Modelling Rhythm Perception by Continuous Time-Frequency Analysis.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Hong Kong, China), p. 392-395.

Desain, P. and Honing, H. (1996) “Physical Motion as a Metaphor for Timing in Music: The Final Ritard.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Hong Kong, China), p. 458-460.

Lyon, E. (1997) “Rhythmic Rendering.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece).

Risset, J-C. (1997) “Rhythmic Paradoxes and Illusions: a Musical Illustration.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece).

Goto, M. and Muraoka, Y. (1998) “An Audio-based Real-time Beat Tracking System and Its Applications.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA).

Wright, M. and Wessel, D. (1998) “An Improvisation Environment for Generating Rhythmic Structures Based on North Indian “Tal” Patterns.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA).

Desain, P. and Honing, H. (1999) "Computational models of beat induction: The rule-based approach." Journal of New Music Research, 28(1): 29-42.

Pachet, F. (2000) “Rhythms as Emerging Structures.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Berlin, Germany).

Frank, R. (2000) “Temporal Elements: A Cognitive System of Analysis for Electro-Acoustic Music.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Berlin, Germany).

Foote, J. and Cooper, M. (2000) “Visualizing Musical Structure and Rhythm via Self-Similarity.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Berlin, Germany).

Frank, Robert J. (2000). “Temporal Elements: A Cognitive System of Analysis for Electroacoustic Music.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Berlin, Germany).

Weyde, T. (2001) “Grouping, Similarity and the Recognition of Rhythmic Structure.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Havana, Cuba). (June 24, 2011)

Neill, Ben. 2002. “Pleasure Beats: Rhythm and Aesthetics of Current Electronic Music.” Leonardo Music Journal, 12: 3-6.

Ariza, C. (2002) “Prokaryotic Groove: Rhythmic Cycles as Real-Value Encoded Genetic Algorithms.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Gothenberg, Sweden), p. 561-567.

Weinberg, G., Aimi, R., Jennings, K. (2002). “The Beatbug Network – A Rhythmic System for Interdependent Group Collaboration.” In Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression.

Garcia-Valenzuela, P. (2003) "Aesthetic in Temporal Forces and Electroacoustic Composition". PhD Thesis: City University, London, Department of Music.

Collins, N. (2003) “A Microtonal Tempo Canon Generator After Nancarrow and Jaffe.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Singapore).

Kapanci, E. and Pfeffer, A. (2003) “Learning Style-Specific Rhythmic Structures.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Singapore).

Fitzell, G. (2004) "Time-Consciousness and Form in Nonlinear Music." PhD thesis, University of British Columbia.

Collins, Nick. (2004) "Beat Induction and Rhythm Analysis for Live Audio Processing." (1st Year PhD report).

Miller, Paul D. (aka. Dj Spooky that subliminal kid). (2004) Rhythm Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Temperley, David. (2004). “An Evaluation System for Metrical Models.” Computer Music Journal, 28(3): 28-44.

Moelants, Dirk. (2004) “Rhythm in Lucien Goethals' electroacoustic works.” Revue belge de musicologie, 50: 143-156.

Morris, Jeffrey M. (2004) “A Dynamic Model of Metric Rhythm in Electroacoustic Music.” In Proceedings of the 2004 International Computer Music Conference (Miami, Florida).

Peeters, G. (2005) “Time Variable Tempo Detection and Beat Marking.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Barcelona, Spain).

Collins, Nick. (2005) “Drumtrack: Beat Induction From an Acoustic Drum Kit with Synchronised Scheduling.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Barcelona, Spain).

Volk, A. (2005) “Modeling a Processive Perspective on Meter in Music.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Barcelona, Spain).

Lidy, T., Pölzlbauer, G., and Rauber, A. (2005) “Sound Re-Synthesis from Rhythm Pattern Features - Audible Insight into a Music Feature Extraction Process.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Barcelona, Spain).

Guaus, E. and Herrera, P. (2005) “The Rhythm Transform: Towards a Generic Rhythm Description.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Barcelona, Spain).

Smith, L. and Honing, H. (2006) “Evaluating and Extending Computational Methods of Rhythmic Syncopation in Music.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (New Orleans, USA), p. 688-691.

Garcia-Valenzuela, P. (2006) “Temporal Forces in Electroacoustic Music.” Electronic Music Studies Network Proceedings. Available online.

Ding, Shiau-Uen. (2006) “Developing a rhythmic performance practice in music for piano and tape.” Organised Sound, 11(3): 255-272.

Graugaard, L. (2006) “Providing Rhythm Patterns in Sound Synthesis.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (New Orleans, USA).

Wright, M. (2006) “Shifty Looping: meter-aware, non-repeating rhythmic loops.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (New Orleans, USA).

Hazan, A., Brossier, P., Holonowicz, P., Herrera, P. and Purwins, H. (2007) Expectation Along the Beat: A Case for Music Expectation Models.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Copenhagen, Denmark), p. 228-235.

Kasahara, S., Yamaguchi, T., Saegusa, R., and Hashimoto, S. (2007) “Rhythm Interaction System Based on Rhythm Association.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Copenhagen, Denmark).

Eigenfeldt, A. (2007) “Drum Circle: Intelligent Agents in Max/MSP.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Copenhagen, Denmark), p. 9-12.

Eigenfeldt, Arne. (2007) “The Creation of Evolutionary Rhythms within a Multi-agent Networked Drum Ensemble.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Copenhagen, Denmark), p. 267-270.

Anderson, E. (2007) “Materials, Meaning and Metaphor: Unveiling Spatio-Temporal Pertinences in Acousmatic Music.” Electroacoustic Music Studies Network Proceedings.

Schacher, J. and Neukom, M. (2007) “Where's the Beat? Tools for Dynamic Tempo Calculations.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Copenhagen, Denmark), p. 17-20.

Gomez, F., Thul, E., and Toussaint, G. (2007) “An Experimental Comparison of Formal Measures of Rhythmic Syncopation.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Copenhagen, Denmark), p. 101-104.

Guedes, C. (2007) “Translating Dance Movement into Musical Rhythm in Real-Time: New Possibilities for Computer-Mediated Collaboration in Interactive Dance Performance.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (Copenhagen, Denmark), p. 485-490.

Percival, G., Anders, T. and Tzanetakis, G. (2008) “Generating Targeting Rhythmic Exercises for Music Students with Constraint Satisfaction Programming.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (SARC, Belfast, N. Ireland).

Streich, S. and Ong, B.S. (2008) “A Music Loop Explorer System.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (SARC, Belfast, N. Ireland). Available online at (June 24, 2011)

Caceres, P. and Renaud, A. (2008) “Playing the Network: The Use of Time Delays as Musical Devices.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (SARC, Belfast, N. Ireland).

Emmerson, Simon. (2008) “Pulse, Meter and Rhythm in Electroacoustic Music.” Electronic Music Studies Network Proceedings.

Stark, A., Davies, M. and Plumbley, M. (2008) “Rhythmic Analysis for Real-Time Audio Effects.” In Proceedings of the ICMC (SARC, Belfast, N. Ireland).

Dean, R. T. and Bailes, F. (2008) "Is there a ‘Rise-Fall Temporal Archetype’ of Intensity in Electroacoustic Music?" Canadian Acoustics, 36(3): 112–13.

Kretz, Johannes. (2009) “The Non-Hierarchical Rhythmic Language of Ngeche for Piano and Electronics.” Contemporary Music Review, 28(2): 167-179.

Andrade, I. (2009) “Temporal Convergences in Mixed Electroacoustic Works.” Electroacoustic Music Studies Network Proceedings.

Britton, E. (2010) “Born under a Bad Star: An Analysis of abstract loop-based composition through Aaron Funk’s Szerencsétlen”. eContact! 12.4.

Dean, R. T., and Bailes, F. (2010) “A Rise-Fall Temporal Asymmetry of Intensity in Composed and Improvised Electroacoustic Music.” Organised Sound, 15(2): 147-158.

Adkins, Monty. (2010) “Metaphor, Abstraction and Temporality in Electroacoustic Music.” Online article.


Of Possible Interest:

McClary, Susan. (1998) Rap, minimalism and structures of time in late twentieth-century culture. College of Fine and Performing Arts, University of Nebraska.

McLachlan, Neil. (2000) “A Spatial Theory of Rhythmic Resolution.” Leonardo Music Journal, 10: 61–67.

Tzanetakis, G., Essl, G. and Cook, P. (2002) "Human perception and computer extraction of beat strength." In Proceedings of the Digital Audio Effects Workshop (DAFx).

London, Justin. (2004) Hearing in Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press.