Key Reading
High Priority
Further Resources
Possible Interest


Key Reading



Barbosa, Á. (2003). Displaced soundscapes: A survey of network systems for music and sonic art creation. Leonardo Music Journal, 13, 53–59.

The author provides an overview of various network systems: local music networks, composition support systems, collective creations systems, telepresence systems, remote collaborative performance systems, and on-line improvisation and shared sonic environments. The author categorizes these various techniques into Local Interconnected Musical Networks, Musical Composition Support Systems, Remote Music Performance Systems, and Shared Sonic Environments.

Braasch, J. (2009). The Telematic Music System: Affordances for a New Instrument to Shape the Music of Tomorrow. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 421–432. doi:10.1080/07494460903422404

The author contextualizes telematic performance within the history of long distance acoustic communication (birdsong, whistling, and drumming) to connect with the tradition of communication at a distance. It is suggested that the telematic system should be viewed as a new type of instrument that must be explored such as to compose pieces that focus on the affordances of the instrument, a process that connects to the history of acoustic instruments. The propagation latency, system latency and mic feedback, are noted as inherent constraints to the system and notes attempts to overcome this: one way transmission, single site consecutive performances, and using the feedback as "room acoustics". The exploration of the unknown is highlighted by the author as a motivation that lead to the piece Tele-Colonization and notes the visual and privacy issues of the telematic system while affirming the cultural exchange. The author concludes that we are still indebted to the ideas we bring with us form our acoustic instrument tradition yet with the development of haptic communication this might change.

Carôt, A., & Werner, C. (2007). Network music performance-problems, approaches and perspectives. In Proceedings of the “Music in the Global Village”-Conference, Budapest, Hungary. Retrieved from http://www.carot.de/Docs/MITGV_AC_CW.pdf

The author notes that bandwidth and delay are the two greatest issues for network musical performance NMP with bandwidth diminishing in importance as machine processing power increases, with physical distance and soundcard configuration creating the majority of the delay, both of which are described in detail. An overview is provided that classifies various delay quantities into 3 main categories of network performance (6 total): Category A – Realistic Interaction Approach (RIA), Category B1 – Master Slave Approach (MSA), Category B2 – Laid Back Approach (LBA), Category B3 – Delayed Feedback Approach (DFA), Category C – Latency Accepting Approach (LAA), Category D – Fake Time Approach (FTA).

Whalley, I. (2012). Internet2 and Global Electroacoustic Music: Navigating a decision space of production, relationships and languages. Organised Sound, 17(01), 4–15. doi:10.1017/S135577181100046X

The author describes his concept of a "decision making space", a conceptual map for musical works and extends this into the telematic situation exploring the choices that are introduced as well as the compromises needed to realize works within this "space". The paper is split into the 4 sections Production, Relationships, Language and Synthesis/conclusion as a way to traverse the topic. The author begins with the notions of space that include real, electroacoustic, parameter, cyberspace, and cyberplace before describing the Production decisions that are available (structural vs process goals, sharing data vs audio, bridge vs shaper approaches, compositional vs communication approaches ) along with methods for dealing with latency alluding to the claim that new hyper-instruments are best suited for the medium . The second section notes the desire for performers to keep their identity in performance in relation to other performers (including machines) and the network; and, notes that it requires time to build relationships over the network. Three dramaturgical perspectives are described, projected, directed, and distributed, along with generative and generative improvisational models in relation to machine roles that leads to a distributed generative improvisational model over the internet. The traditional roles of composer, musician, producer (and audience) are changing and it is suggested that "multiple realizations" is a way of producing works to engage with this change, also anticipating "the creative role programmers are likely to play in Internet2 works, the further deployment of intelligent machines, and more participatory roles for audiences who may use infrastructures and interfaces in ways unintended by makers". The third section outlines decisions of notation, non-notation, gesture (Smalley), formalist views of language, affective/emotional elements, if the desired musical/sound language will be self-contained or includes other communicative elements (i.e. dance), as well as the intended focus of the work. A matrix is described consisting of 8 segments Historical/Conceptual, Gesture (cause), Language, Sound, Semiotics, Elements, Basic Effects as a way to navigate the decision space covering three main categorizations: Body, External, Abstract. The final section briefly relates the authors piece Mittsu no Yugo within the described "decision making space".

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High Priority



Akoumianakis, D., Vellis, G., Milolidakis, I., Kotsalis, D., & Alexandraki, C. (2008). Distributed collective practices in collaborative music performance. In Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Digital Interactive Media in Entertainment and Arts (pp. 368–375). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1413700

In this paper the author describes research into network performance using the DIAMOUSES system focusing on technologically mediated practices, "how new practices may arise and become institutionalized within a virtual community of practice" as well as the relation of on-line and off-line practices of traditional music. The author begins with a discussion on collaborative practice and particularly on "visualizing elements of practice and supporting mutual awareness" including discussion of DSLs in visualizing practice vocabulary. The author follows with a description of a typical practice set up and the on-line practice vocabulary.

Alexandraki, C., & Akoumianakis, D. (2010). Exploring new perspectives in network music performance: The DIAMOUSES framework. Computer Music Journal, 34(2), 66–83.

The author reports on recent results from a research and development project on network music performance NMP, named DIAMOUSES. After the main issues of NMP are covered (latency and bandwidth) the author claims "(t)he main idea of the DIAMOUSES approach originates from the fact that music performance may occur in different contexts and for various purposes, such as live concerts, improvisation and jam sessions, recording sessions, interactive compositional sessions, music lessons, and master classes." The current trends in NMP are covered which include realistic and non-realistic NMP systems, architectural challenges (peer-peer and star topologies), and collaboration toolkits for NMP, followed by the research focus which is summed up under three broad and interrelated research directions, hybrid architecture, software toolkits that facilitate collaboration, and an alternative community-based model that frames NMP as a distributed collective practice. An indepth overview of the methodology, DIAMOUSES architecture, implementation, DIAMOUSES streaming server, NMP API, community support functions and collaboration server, as well as an overview of the pilot development and technical assessment that included three scenarios: a jazz rehearsal, live electroacoustic music performance, and a piano lesson.

Alexandraki, C., Koutlemanis, P., Gasteratos, P., Valsamakis, N., Akoumianakis, D., Milolidakis, G., … Kotsalis, D. (2008). Towards the implementation of a generic platform for networked music performance: the DIAMOUSES approach. In Proceedings of the ICMC 2008 International Computer Music Conference (ICMC 2008) (pp. 24–29). Retrieved from http://classes.berklee.edu/mbierylo/ICMC08/defevent/papers/cr1598.pdf

Ascott, R., & Shanken, E. A. (2007). Telematic Embrace: Visionary Theories of Art, Technology, and Consciousness by Roy Ascott (1 edition.). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bahn, C., Braasch, J., Kouttron, D., McDonald, K., & Oliveros, P. (2008). Haptic communication and colocated performance. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124(4), 2489–2489. doi:10.1121/1.4782780

Barbosa, A. (2005). Public Sound Objects: a shared environment for networked music practice on the Web. Organised Sound, 10(03), 233–242. doi:10.1017/S135577180500097X

Bischoff, J., Gold, R., & Horton, J. (1978). Music for an Interactive Network of Microcomputers. Computer Music Journal, 2(3), 24. doi:10.2307/3679453

Braasch, J. (2009). The Telematic Music System: Affordances for a New Instrument to Shape the Music of Tomorrow. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 421–432. doi:10.1080/07494460903422404

Burtner, M., Kemper, S., & Topper, D. (2012). Network Socio-Synthesis and Emergence in NOMADS. Organised Sound, 17(01), 45–55. doi:10.1017/S1355771811000501

Cáceres, J.-P., & Chafe, C. (2010). JackTrip: Under the Hood of an Engine for Network Audio. Journal of New Music Research, 39(3), 183–187. doi:10.1080/09298215.2010.481361

Cáceres, J.-P., Hamilton, R., Iyer, D., Chafe, C., & Wang, G. (2008). To the edge with china: Explorations in network performance. In ARTECH 2008: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Digital Arts (pp. 61–66). Retrieved from https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~rob/papers/caceres-2008ARTECH-china.pdf

*Cáceres, J.-P., & Renaud, A. B. (2008). Playing the network: the use of time delays as musical devices. In Proceedings of International Computer Music Conference (pp. 244–250). Retrieved from http://classes.berklee.edu/mbierylo/ICMC08/defevent/papers/cr1425.pdf

The author describes current work developed and being developed for network music performance (NMP) that incorporates the inherent delay in network transmission as part of the materials used for composing. "In this specific case, the network is considered as a medium which brings its own acoustic contribution to the music making process rather than being a link between two spaces." The areas that are being explored by the author include: Using networked time delay in a musical fashion rather than constantly trying to counter it, Combining the acoustics of physical spaces with the acoustics brought by the network itself, Translating the various latencies into spatial diffusion algorithms, making the distance “audible.”, Taking advantage of the scattering of musicians over the network to create a de-multiplication of musical patterns affected by the various network latencies, and Exploiting the phenomena of synchronization and asynchronization leading to the creation of material that sounds different on each end. The examples that are discussed are related to the author's ensemble "net vs net" and networking software Master Cue Generator - focusing on practice-based research.

Carôt, A. (2009). Musical Telepresence: A Comprehensive Analysis Towards New Cognitive and Technical Approaches.

*Carôt, A., Rebelo, P., & Renaud, A. (2007). Networked music performance: State of the art. In Audio Engineering Society Conference: 30th International Conference: Intelligent Audio Environments. Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved from http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=13914

The author provides an overview of various initiatives that exist in the area of network musical performance NMP. A brief history of networked music is provided that takes us through the work of John Cage, The Automated League of Composers who later became The Hub, to the first NMP of bidirectional high quality audio by the SoundWireproject, led by Chris Chafe at Stanford’s CCRMA. The main focus of the paper is an overview of the current (2007) technologies that exist that are categorized by the way that they approach and deal with the issue of latency (soundcard + physical distance + jitter smoothing = total latency), which include the realistic jam approach (Soundjack and eJamming), latency accepting approach (Ninjam and Quintet.net), and the remote recording approach (DML and VSTunnel). The author concludes with a brief discussion of network culture (blogs, Creative Commons, and "virtual bands" in Second Life) and interaction.

Carôt, A., & Werner, C. (2009). Fundamentals and Principles of Musical telepresence. Journal of Science and Technology of the Arts, 1(1), 26–37.

Chafe, C., Wilson, S., Leistikow, R., Chisholm, D., & Scavone, G. (2000). A simplified approach to high quality music and sound over IP. In COST-G6 Conference on Digital Audio Effects (pp. 159–164). Citeseer.

Chew, E., Kyriakakis, C., Papadopoulos, C., Sawchuk, A., & Zimmermann, R. (n.d.). Distributed Immersive Performance: Enabling Technologies for and Analyses of Remote Performance and Collaboration. NIME 06, June 4-8, 2006, Paris, France.

Dessen, M. (2010). New Polyphonies: Score Streams, Improvisation and Telepresence. Leonardo Music Journal, 20, 21–23.

Pointing to the possibilities that lay hidden, unveiled, in telematic performance while connecting to the history of improvisation the author provides a brief overview of his work "score streams", a work that uses the internet to connect geographically dispersed acoustic instrument performers, providing them with dynamic contemporary scores that mix custom pictorial languages and conventional staff-based notations using a custom made program in MaxMSP as well as sharing their audio using JackTrip.

Donati, L. P., & Prado, G. (2001). Artistic Environments of Telepresence on the World Wide Web. Leonardo Music Journal, 34(5), 437–442.

The author explores various ways that telepresence is occurring utilizing the world wide web "that supports a new phenomenon of virtual, deferred, remote presence, extending perception and expanding the possibilities of remote interaction." The definition of telepresence is reviewed followed by discussions of direct observation of remote physical spaces referencing the works Depois do Turismo vem o Colunismo(After Tourism comes Colunismo) by Gilbertto Prado, and the Ghost Watcher by June Houston, synchronous exchange of information referencing the works Rara Avis by Eduardo Kac, and Alice Sat Here by Nina Sobell and Emily Hartzell, and remote action in different physical spaces referencing the works PRoPs (Personal Roving Presence) by Eric Paulos and John Canny, and Telegarden by the team including Ken Goldberg, Joseph Santarramana, George Bekey, Steve Gentner, Rosemary Morris, Carl Sutter, Jeff Wiegley and E. Berger.

Driessen, P. F., Darcie, T. E., & Pillay, B. (2011). The effects of network delay on tempo in musical performance. Computer Music Journal, 35(1), 76–89.
Eigenfeldt, A. (2009). NetBeat and Net4Tet-Networked Performance Instruments for Electroacoustic Music Students. In CSE (4) (pp. 860–861). Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/~eigenfel/NetBeat.pdf
Fields, K. (2012). Syneme: Live. Organised Sound, 17(01), 86–95. doi:10.1017/S1355771811000549

*Föllmer, G. (2005). Electronic, aesthetic and social factors in Net music. Organised Sound, 10(03), 185–192. doi:10.1017/S1355771805000920

The author presents the results of a study on 'Net music' presented in 2002. Three problems of net music and their respective solutions commence the article - the problematic of space, the problematic of presence, and the problematic of machine, followed by a typology of 'Net music' that uses the three dimensions of interplay with network characteristics, interactivity/openness, and complexity/flexibility to characterize twelve types of net music: 1. Discussion Forums, 2. Remix Lists, 3. Archive Projects, 4. Soundtoys, 5. Flash, Shockwave Soundtoys, 6. Hypermusic, 7. Real/Virtual Space Installations, 8. Algorithmic Installations, 9. Instruments, 10. Authoring Software, 11. Network Performance, and 12. Staged Performance, which are further characterized into five clusters: 1. The Forum, 2. The Game, 3. Algorithm and Installation, 4. Instrument and Workshop, and 5. Performance. The author concludes with discussions on the interplay with network characteristics (communication and composition, and space), interactivity and openness, and complexity and flexibility.

Gremo, B. P. (2012). Tele-Media and Instrument Making. Organised Sound, 17(01), 73–85. doi:10.1017/S1355771811000537

The author discusses tele-media in the context of instrument making. Beginning with an exploration of the definition of an instrument, rooted in the analog, and extended to tele-media, the author discusses control data and networks, precedents in network instruments, and virtuosity. The author then focuses on the developed instrument Cilia, a tele-media instrument based on the acoustic instrument the shakuhachi. The author provides a reverse analysis of the shakuhachi, which was used in the development of the Cilia, with an accumulative discussion of the control types that moves from unilateral control types to multi-lateral cross-control.

Gresham-Lancaster, S. (1998). The Aesthetics and History of the Hub: The Effects of Changing Technology on Network Computer Music. Leonardo Music Journal, 8, 39. doi:10.2307/1513398
Gu, X., Dick, M., Kurtisi, Z., Noyer, U., & Wolf, L. (2005). Network-centric music performance: Practice and experiments. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 43(6), 86–93.
Guedes, C., & Rebelo, P. (2010). Reflections on music programming for conferences: The case of smc 2009. Computer Music Journal, 34(3), 10–19.
Gurevich, M., Chafe, C., Leslie, G., & Tyan, S. (2004). Simulation of networked ensemble performance with varying time delays: Characterization of ensemble accuracy. In Proceedings of the 2004 International Computer Music Conference, Miami, USA. Retrieved from http://michaelgurevich.com/media/gurevich_ICMC04.pdf
Hajdu, G. (2003). Quintet. net–A Quintet on the Internet. In Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference (Vol. 29, pp. 315–318). Retrieved from http://nagasm.org/ASL/icmc2003/closed/CR1064.PDF
Hajdu, G. (2005). Quintet. net: An environment for composing and performing music on the Internet. Leonardo, 38(1), 23–30.
Hajdu, G. (n.d.). QUINTET.NET: AN INTERACTIVE PERFORMANCE ENVIRONMENT FOR THE INTERNET.
Hajdu, G., & Didkovsky, N. (2009). On the Evolution of Music Notation in Network Music Environments. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 395–407. doi:10.1080/07494460903422313
Hajdu, G., & Weg, H. (2004). PLAYING PERFORMERS. IDEAS ABOUT MEDIATED NETWORK MUSIC PERFORMANCE. Architecture, 2005, 2006.
Hayes, L., & Michalakos, C. (2012). Imposing a Networked Vibrotactile Communication System for Improvisational Suggestion. Organised Sound, 17(01), 36–44. doi:10.1017/S1355771811000495

Helmuth, M. (2005). Virtual musical performance and improvisation on Internet2. Organised Sound, 10(03), 201. doi:10.1017/S1355771805000944

The author discusses approaches to network music performance NMP that he was part of developing after the implementation of Internet2. After an overview of Internet2 the author reviews two performances that he was a part of, Clotho, the life of Camille Claudel and The Ankle Diver and discusses their respective approaches to NMP. The author discusses the progression of CMIX, to RTCMIX, and finally Soundmesh.

INDIGENOUS TO THE NET. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://crossfade.walkerart.org/brownbischoff/IndigenoustotheNetPrint.html
Jordà, S. (1999). Faust Music On Line (FMOL): An approach to Realtime Collective Composition on the Internet. Leonardo Music Journal, 9, 5–12.
Joy, J., & Sinclair, P. (n.d.). Networked Sonic Spaces. Retrieved from http://nujus.net/~locusonus/site/publication/Networked_Sonic_Spaces_eng.pdf
Kapur, A., Wang, G., Davidson, P., & Cook, P. R. (2005). Interactive Network Performance: a dream worth dreaming? Organised Sound, 10(03), 209. doi:10.1017/S1355771805000956

Kim-Boyle, D. (2009). Network Musics: Play, Engagement and the Democratization of Performance. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 363–375. doi:10.1080/07494460903422198

The author discusses approaches to network music and the new aesthetic questions they facilitate. Four approaches are discussed, network instruments, generative works, mobile music, and immersive works, followed by a discussion of the aesthetic themes within the works mentioned in relation to each approach. Aesthetic themes that are touched upon include "the musical ramifications of democratized performance spaces and the various degrees of democratization promoted through system architecture, through to reflection on how the spatial and temporal aesthetics of network technologies mediate collaborative relationships", and "the transformation of the traditional roles of the composer and performer to that of designer and player."

Kleimola, J. (2006). Latency issues in distributed musical performance. Telecommunications Software and Multimedia Laboratory. Retrieved from http://www.tml.tkk.fi/Opinnot/T-111.5080/2006/FPaperit/Latency_Kleimola_final.pdf
Konstantas, D. (1998). Overview of a Telepresence Environment for Distributed Musical Rehearsals. In Proceedings of the 1998 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (pp. 456–457). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi:10.1145/330560.330857
Lazzaro, J., & Wawrzynek, J. (2001). A case for network musical performance. In Proceedings of the 11th international workshop on Network and operating systems support for digital audio and video (pp. 157–166). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=378367
Lovink, A. M. & G. (n.d.). FCJ-040 Theses on Distributed Aesthetics. Or, What a Network is Not. Retrieved from http://seven.fibreculturejournal.org/fcj-040-theses-on-distributed-aesthetics-or-what-a-network-is-not/
Makelberge, N. (2012). Rethinking Collaboration in Networked Music. Organised Sound, 17(01), 28–35. doi:10.1017/S1355771811000483
Miletto, E. M., Pimenta, M. S., Vicari, R. M., & Flores, L. V. (2005). CODES: a Web-based environment for cooperative music prototyping. Organised Sound, 10(03), 243–253. doi:10.1017/S1355771805000981
Mills, R., & Beilharz, K. (2012). Listening Through the Firewall: Semiotics of sound in networked improvisation. Organised Sound, 17(01), 16–27. doi:10.1017/S1355771811000471
Networkologies - A Manifesto (Version 1.0). (n.d.). Networkologies. Retrieved from http://networkologies.wordpress.com/why-networks-a-mini-manifesto/
Oda, R., Finkelstein, A., & Fiebrink, R. (2013). Towards Note-Level Prediction for Networked Music Performance. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression. Retrieved from http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~fiebrink/publications/OdaFinkelsteinFiebrink_NIME2013.pdf
Ogborn, D. (2012). Composing for a Networked, Pulse-Based, Laptop Orchestra. Organised Sound, 17(01), 56–61. doi:10.1017/S1355771811000513
Ogborn, D. (2014). Live Coding in a Scalable, Participatory Laptop Orchestra. Computer Music Journal, 38(1), 17–30.
Oliveros, P. (2009). Networked Music: Low and High Tech. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 433–435. doi:10.1080/07494460903422412
Pedro, F. S. A. B. R., & Gualda, R. F. (n.d.). Addressing the Network: Performative Strategies for Playing APART. Retrieved from http://www.somasa.qub.ac.uk/~prebelo/index/research/SchroederRenaudRebeloGualda.pdf
Puckette, M. (2009). Not Being There. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 409–412. doi:10.1080/07494460903422354
Rebelo, P. (2009). Dramaturgy in the Network. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 387–393. doi:10.1080/07494460903422271
Rebelo, P. (2010). Notating the Unpredictable. Contemporary Music Review, 29(1), 17–27. doi:10.1080/07494467.2010.509589
Rebelo, P., & Renaud, A. B. (2006). The Frequencyliator: Distributing Structures for Networked Laptop Improvisation. In Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (pp. 53–56). Paris, France, France: IRCAM — Centre Pompidou. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/citation.cfm?id=1142215.1142226
Rebelo, P., Schroeder, F., & Renaud, A. B. (2008). Network dramaturgy: Being on the node. In International Computer Music Conference. Retrieved from http://classes.berklee.edu/mbierylo/ICMC08/defevent/papers/cr1814.pdf
Renaud, A. B. A. (2010). The network as a performance space : Strategies and applications (Ph.D.). Queen’s University Belfast. Retrieved from http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.517042

Renaud, A., & Rebelo, P. (2006). Network performance: Strategies and applications. In NIME Conference Paper. Citeseer. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.134.3968&rep=rep1&type=pdf

The author describes work that is being conducted at Sonic Arts Research Center (SARC) in the area of Network Music Performance (NMP) that focuses on the unique aspects that exist in NMP. The SoundWire (Chris Chafe CCRMA Stanford) and Soundjack (Alexander Carôt at ISNM) music network systems are described with references to their use in performances followed by outlines of the current research that include Remote Acoustics, Remote Soundscapes, and the networked laptop environment called Frequincyliator.

Renwick, R. (2012). SOURCENODE: A NETWORK SOURCED APPROACH TO NETWORK MUSIC PERFORMANCE (NMP). Ann Arbor, MI: MPublishing, University of Michigan Library. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/256093946_SOURCENODE_A_NETWORK_SOURCED_APPROACH_TO_NETWORK_MUSIC_PERFORMANCE_(NMP)/file/9c960521b4346c7624.pdf
Roma, G., & Herrera, P. (2010). Graph grammar representation for collaborative sample-based music creation. In Proceedings of the 5th Audio Mostly Conference: A Conference on Interaction with Sound (p. 17). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1859816
Sarkar, M., & Vercoe, B. (2007). Recognition and prediction in a network music performance system for Indian percussion. In Proceedings of the 7th international conference on New interfaces for musical expression (pp. 317–320). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1279809
Sawchuk, A. A., Chew, E., Zimmermann, R., Papadopoulos, C., & Kyriakakis, C. (2003). From remote media immersion to distributed immersive performance. In Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGMM workshop on Experiential telepresence (pp. 110–120). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=982506
Schroeder, F. (2009). Dramaturgy as a Model for Geographically Displaced Collaborations: Views from Within and Views from Without 1. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 377–385. doi:10.1080/07494460903422263
Schroeder, F., & Rebelo, P. (2009a). Sounding the Network: The Body as Disturbant. Leonardo Electronic Almanac, 16(4-5), 1–10.
Schroeder, F., & Rebelo, P. (2009b). The Pontydian performance: The performative layer. Organised Sound, 14(2), 134–141.
Tanaka, A. (2003). Seeking interaction, changing space. Proceedings of the 6th International Art+ Communication Festival 2003. Retrieved from http://csl.sony.fr/downloads/papers/2003/tanaka-03a.pdf
Tanaka, A. (n.d.). Facilitating Musical Creativity: In Collectivity and Mobility. Leonardo, 15(5).
Tanaka, A., Tokui, N., & Momeni, A. (2005). Facilitating Collective Musical Creativity. In Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACM International Conference on Multimedia (pp. 191–198). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi:10.1145/1101149.1101177
Tanzi, D., & others. (2005). Musical Thought Networked. Laboratorio Di Informatica Musicale, Dipartimento Di Informatica E Comunicazione, Universita Degli Studi Di Milano.
telematic connections:: timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://telematic.walkerart.org/timeline/timeline_shanken.html
Vallis, O., Diakopoulos, D., Hochenbaum, J., & Kapur, A. (2012). Building on the Foundations of Network Music: Exploring interaction contexts and shared robotic instruments. Organised Sound, 17(01), 62–72. doi:10.1017/S1355771811000525
Veitch, D., Babu, S., & Pàsztor, A. (2004). Robust synchronization of software clocks across the internet. In Proceedings of the 4th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement (pp. 219–232). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1028817
Weaver, S. (2011). Latency: Music Composition and Technology Solutions for Perception of Synchrony in “ResoNations 2010: An International Telematic Music Concert for Peace.” New York University. Retrieved from http://sarahweaver.org/files/weaver_masters_thesis_final.pdf

Weinberg, G. (2005). Interconnected musical networks: Toward a theoretical framework. Computer Music Journal, 29(2), 23–39.

Music being an interdependent art form, "[m]usical networks,..., bear the promise of using technology to enhance the social context of music performance and enrich its social ritual roots." The author "attempts to define aesthetic and technical principles of interconnected musical networks". A historical overview is provided that includes numerous works that exemplify contributions of analog electronics, the personal computer, the internet (the server, bridge, shaper, and construction kit approaches), and alternate controllers (small and large scale local networks) to the current (2005) state of musical networks. In describing his theoretical framework for musical interconnectivity the author explores goals and motivations (process-centered networks and structure-centered networks), social organization and perspectives (centralized and decentralized systems), architectures and topologies, ending with musical content and control.

Weinberg, G. (2005b). Local Performance Networks: musical interdependency through gestures and controllers. Organised Sound, 10(03), 255–265. doi:10.1017/S1355771805000993
Weinberg, G. (n.d.-a). Interconnected Musical Networks - Bringing Expression and Thoughtfulnes.
Weinberg, G. (n.d.-b). The Aesthetics, History, and Future Challenges of Interconnected Music Networks.
Whalley, I. (2012). Internet2 and Global Electroacoustic Music: Navigating a decision space of production, relationships and languages. Organised Sound, 17(01), 4–15. doi:10.1017/S135577181100046X
Work in Progress: “The Networked Mind: Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Post- Structuralist Philosophy.” (n.d.). Networkologies. Retrieved from http://networkologies.wordpress.com/work-in-progress-the-networked-mind/
Wright, M. (2005). Open Sound Control: an enabling technology for musical networking. Organised Sound, 10(03), 193. doi:10.1017/S1355771805000932
Zimmermann, R., Chew, E., Ay, S. A., & Pawar, M. (2008). Distributed musical performances: Architecture and stream management. ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications, 4(2), 1–23. doi:10.1145/1352012.1352018

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Further Resources


Article: “On The Metaphysics and Physics of the Networkological Endeavor: An Introduction.” (n.d.). Networkologies. Retrieved from http://networkologies.wordpress.com/article-on-the-metaphysics-and-physics-of-networkological-relationalism/
Barney, D. (2004). The Network Society (1 edition.). Cambridge ; Malden, MA: Polity.
Birchfield, D., Lorig, D., & Phillips, K. (2005). Network Dynamics in Sustainable: a robotic sound installation. Organised Sound, 10(03), 267–274. doi:10.1017/S1355771805000907
Book Manuscript: “Networkologies: A New Philosophy of Networks for a Hyperconnected Age” (Vol. I, Zer0 Books, Fall 2012). (n.d.). Networkologies. Retrieved from http://networkologies.wordpress.com/work-in-progress-networkologies/
Broeckmann, A. (2004). Reseau/Resonance: Connective Processes and Artistic Practice. Leonardo, 37(4), 281–284.
Bull, S., Gresham-Lancaster, S., Mintchev, K., & Svoboda, T. (2007). Cellphonia: WET. In Proceedings of the 7th international conference on New interfaces for musical expression (pp. 420–420). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1279844
Buzzarté, M. (2009). Here Right Now. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 437–437. doi:10.1080/07494460903422529
Cáceres, J.-P., & Chafe, C. (2010). Jacktrip/Soundwire meets server farm. Computer Music Journal, 34(3), 29–34.
Cayley, J., & Perring, G. (2008). Imposition. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM international conference on Multimedia (pp. 1123–1124). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1459595
Chafe, C. (2009). Tapping into the Internet as an Acoustical/Musical Medium. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 413–420. doi:10.1080/07494460903422362
Chaves, R., & Rebelo, P. (n.d.). Sensing Shared Places: Designing a mobile audio streaming environment. Retrieved from http://people.brunel.ac.uk/bst/vol1001/ruichaves/ruichaves.html
Disembodiment and Cyberspace: A Phenomenological Approach. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://www.sociology.org/content/2005/tier1/ajana.html
Freeman, J., Varnik, K., Ramakrishnan, C., Neuhaus, M., Burk, P., & Birchfield, D. (2005). Auracle: a voice-controlled, networked sound instrument. Organised Sound, 10(03), 221. doi:10.1017/S1355771805000968
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. (2007). Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, 2007 IEEE.
Joy, J. (2009). Networked Music & Soundart Timeline (NMSAT) Excerpts of Part One: Ancient and Modern History, Anticipatory Literature, and Technical Developments References. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 449–490. doi:10.1080/07494460903422602
Joy, J. (2012). What NMSAT says about sonification. AI & SOCIETY, 27(2), 233–244. doi:10.1007/s00146-011-0343-5
Mao, Z. M., So, H. W., & Kang, B. (2001). Network support for mobile multimedia using a self-adaptive distributed proxy. In Proceedings of the 11th international workshop on Network and operating systems support for digital audio and video (pp. 107–116). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=378360
Mejias, U. A. (2006). NETWORKED PROXIMITY: ICTS AND THE MEDIATION OF NEARNESS.
Muth, D., & Burton, E. (2003). Sodaconductor. In Proceedings of the 2003 conference on New interfaces for musical expression (pp. 222–224). National University of Singapore. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1085772
Nagai, M. (2009). Long Distance Sitting #2: Untitled Sit for Multiple Virtual Bodies and You. Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 439–444. doi:10.1080/07494460903422586
Norderval, K. (2009). Now …and then? Contemporary Music Review, 28(4-5), 445–448. doi:10.1080/07494460903422594
O’Hara, K., & Brown, B. (2006). Consuming Music Together: Social and Collaborative Aspects of Music Consumption Technologies (2006 edition.). Berlin ; New York: Springer.
Rebelo, P., Green, M., & Hollerweger, F. (2008). A typology for Listening in Place. In Proceedings of the 5th International Mobile Music Workshop (pp. 15–18). Retrieved from http://mmw2008.dieangewandte.at/MMW_PDF/MMW_proceedings2008_web.pdf#page=15
Rosenstock, J. P. (2009). Telematic Timelapse: Surveillance Suite. In Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition (pp. 471–472). New York, NY, USA: ACM. doi:10.1145/1640233.1640359
sarah weaver : composer | composer | Masters Thesis. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://www.sarahweaver.org/masters_thesis/
Shanken, E. A. (2000). Tele-Agency: Telematics, Telerobotics, and the Art of Meaning. Art Journal, 59(2), 65–77. doi:10.2307/778102
Tanaka, A. (2001). Musical implications of media and network infrastructures. Proc H2PTM’01: Hypertextes Hypermédias, 241–250.
Tanaka, A. (2004). Mobile music making. In Proceedings of the 2004 conference on New interfaces for musical expression (pp. 154–156). National University of Singapore. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1085918
Tanaka, A. (2008). Visceral Mobile Music Systems. In R. Adams, S. Gibson, & S. M. Arisona (Eds.), Transdisciplinary Digital Art. Sound, Vision and the New Screen (pp. 155–170). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-79486-8_15
Tanaka, A. (2011). Music one participates in. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM conference on Creativity and cognition (pp. 105–106). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2069637
Tanaka, A., Authier, A., Valadon, G., & Violette, L. (2004). Enhancing Musical Experience Through Proximal Interaction. In Proceedings of the 2004 International Computer Music Conference (pp. 205–208). Retrieved from http://csl.sony.fr/downloads/papers/2004/tanaka-04d.pdf
Tanaka, A., & Gemeinboeck, P. (2008). Net_Dérive: Conceiving and producing a locative media artwork. Mobile Technologies: From Telecommunications to Media. London: Routledge, 174–186.
Technology and Intuition: Roy Ascott. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://www.leonardo.info/isast/articles/shanken.html

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Possible Interest


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Duckworth, W. (2005). Virtual Music: How the Web Got Wired for Sound (1 edition.). New York: Routledge.
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