Live Coding:

What is Live Coding : TopLap
Strong/Weak definitions
Live coding in general
Introducing the practice
Computer Science Context
Systems and solutions
Disintegration of creative roles
Programming as instrument
Live Coding as Musical scores
Artistic Preservation
Embodied practice
Networked performance
Designing constrained systems

Practice-based Research

Defining PbR: Contextualizing PbR in relation to similar methods that include practice in relation to research
Knowledge in the context of Academia
Issues for Practitioner-Researchers
  1. writing about their familiar practice,
  2. envisioning the outcome of the project/research,
  3. the continuity of intellectual rigor concurrent with practice, and
  4. understanding the big picture of academic research.

Digital Humanities

What does the DH include and exclude?
  1. big tent vs narrow
  2. issues of defining the DH
  3. Flux and fluidity, unstable and uncertainty, complexity of the minute
Technology as a tool vs. object of study (traditional vs. “builders”)
--> expressive medium, exploratory Laboratory, and activist Venue (Svennson)
Relevancy of programming
open access,
Record of the DH in being cited
Commercial vs designed software
peer review,
--> Third wave of DH scholars – multimodal scholars - beyond scholarly text to include scholarly multimedia (McPherson, T. (2009))
publication practices,
data: What are data?
--> research methods,
collaboration,
infrastructure
tenure,

Practice-based Research


What is PbR and its issues?

Bennett, D., Wright, D., & Blom, D. (2010). The artistic practice-research-teaching (ART) nexus:Translating the information flow. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 7(2). http://ro.uow.edu.au/jutlp/vol7/iss2/3. Accessed 1 Feb 2013.

Biggs, M., & Buchler, D. (2008). Eight criteria for practice-based research in the creative and cultural industries. Art, Design & Communication in Higher Education, 7(1), 5–18.

The author discusses 8 criteria for PbR, four of which are general it attempt to link PbR to the other forms of academic research, with the remaining four being discipline specific such as to place them in relation to academic research.
The author points out that academic research is cumulative in comparison to “research” that one does to be personally informed (though the knowledge already exists) thus setting up the Isolationist and Situated Positions and then go on to describe the 8 criteria: Questions and answers, Knowledge, Methods, Audiences, Role of text and image, Relationship of form and content, Function of rhetoric, and Function of experience. The author concludes “(t)he notions of originality and dissemination are, therefore, consequences of the axiom of research as a cumulative activity, and the Situated Position of research in CCI (Creative and Cultural Industries).”

Candy, L. (2006). Practice based research: A guide. Report from Creativity and Cognition Studios, University of Technology, Sydney. Retrieved January, 19, 2010.
The author provides a guide for practice-based research in the context of the PHD. Practice-based and Practice-led research are defined in relation to each other, followed by a history of practice-based research. The PHD and knowledge are questioned in relation to practice which is followed by a thesis outline, frequently asked questions in the area, a bibliography, and definitions.

Hockey, J. (2003). Art and Design Practice-Based Research Degree Supervision some empirical findings. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 2(2), 173–185.

The author discusses findings from interviewing 50 research supervisors at higher education institutions regarding issues that arise for those engaged in practice-based research degrees. The author traverses the students struggle with academic writing about their familiar practice, envisioning the outcome of the project/research, the continuity of intellectual rigor concurrent with practice, and understanding the big picture of academic research.

Spatz, B. (2011). Practice as Research: Foundations for a Community of Knowledge. Dance Research Journal, 43(1), 48–57.

The author discusses the importance of situating practice within academia. Questioning the current situation of what constitutes academic research and pedagogy as related to an archive the distinction between practice and research and practice as research is made. The point that embodied practice can not be captured with text leads the notion of an academic multimedia archive such that the historically ephemeral nature of embodied knowledge can added to stable archive.

Edmonds, E. (2010). The art of interaction, 21(4), 257–264.

The author discusses interactive art and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as HCI issues “are as important to interactive art making as issues relating to the colours of paint are to painting”. A brief history of interactive art is reviewed leading to the current situation where an artist is often the member of a team, noting collaborations between artist, researcher and technologist. Interactive art is related to games noting some commonalities and thirteen categories of research results relating to pleasure are outlined. The design aspect of art is discussed noting that artists often require the need to try out their works before they are completed.
The key conclusion is that practice-based research in interactive art informs the next developments of experience design (HCI) research.”

Edmonds, E., & Candy, L. (2010). Relating Theory, Practice and Evaluation in Practitioner Research. Leonardo, 43(5), 470–476.

The author describes a model of PbR that represents the relationship between theory, practice and evaluation, which are outlined. Four examples are discussed, Example 1: Theory Drives Practice—A Framework for Interactive Emergent Experience, Example 2: Practice Drives Theory— A Framework for Interaction with Virtual Instruments, Example 3: Theory and Practice Reflexivity— A Framework for Collaborative Curatorial Practice, and Example 4: Practice and Theory—A Framework for Interactive Play Experience.

Live Coding references in the context of practice-based research:
Bown, O. (2011). A. Experiments in Modular Design for the Creative Composition of Live Algorithms. Computer Music Journal, 35(3), 73–85.

Bovermann, T., & Griffiths, D. (2014). Computation as Material in Live Coding. Computer Music Journal, 38(1), 40–53.

The authors present their work, three years of artistic research and performance practice, on and with Betablocker, “an imaginary CPU architecture, specifically designed and implemented for live coding purposes” “Live coding with Betablocker can be undertaken in various forms and on different levels, ranging from assembler-level programming, through recursive live coding based on the engine’s capability of self-modification, to genetic algorithms and structural programming.” The article covers the themes of “algorithmic composition, sound generation, genetic programming, and autonomous coding in the light of self-manipulating code and artistic research practice.”

Brown, A. R., & Sorensen, A. C. (2009). Integrating creative practice and research in the digital media arts. Practice-Led Research, Research-Led Practice in the Creative Arts, 153–165.

The authors outline their practice-led research using their live-coding performance practice as a case-study. They argue “while research and creative practice are not the same activity, there is significant intellectual and cultural benefit to be gained through integration of research and practice.”

McLean, Alex. (n.d.). Visualisation of Live Code. Alex McLean. Retrieved from http://yaxu.org/visualisation-of-live-code/

The author describes approaches to code visualisation within the live coding context. A brief description of LC is given then moving into the issue of “lack of performance” that accompanies computer music (laptop performance) and LCs response of revealing the code. The author goes on to describe some of the enhancements to text editors that have evolved them into IDE (interactive development environments) and how we interpret and understand the structure of code raising the issue of symbols, shape and geometry in computation. Four novel visual/geometric live coding systems are described. The author “confront(s) how code is perceived by performers and audiences, and in what ways visual elements contribute to the primary syntax and semantics of a programming language meant for live coding.” The author concludes that visualisation of live code is under-investigated in terms of the psychology of programming and that this is a fertile area for practice-based research.

McLean, A., & Wiggins, G. (2009). Patterns of movement in live languages. Retrieved from http://doc.gold.ac.uk/~ma503am/writing/chart.pdf

The author describes live coding, the prehistory of live coding moving on to compare textual vs visual programming languages and the (in)accurateness of this description. The author discusses the experience of computational abstractions over time for the performer and the audience. The author describes this work as research based practice and practice based research in its infancy.


Descriptions of projects using Practice based research:
key readings:

Edmonds, E. A., Weakley, A., Candy, L., Fell, M., Knott, R., & Pauletto, S. (2005). The studio as laboratory: Combining creative practice and digital technology research. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63(4-5), 452–481. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2005.04.012
The author discusses “interaction tools in the context of software environments for creative practices” and concludes that programming, rather than software use, is necessary which included the need for “visual representations of the code, persistent data and interpreted, rather than compiled, systems.” The author describes a practice-based research method stating “(t)he outcomes of the COSTART project lead us to believe that a methodology for combining research and practice can be successful in generating both research results and creative artefacts.”

Embodied Schemas for Cross-modal Mapping in the Design of Gestural Controllers | ISEA2011 Istanbul. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from https://isea2011.sabanciuniv.edu/paper/embodied-schemas-cross-modal-mapping-design-gestural-controllers

The author discusses the context and background of Embodied Cognition in relation to creating PbR that explores the experience of digital instruments that control the timbre of synthesized sound. The background of Embodied Cognition is provided which leads to the authors focus on Image Schemata, conceptual blending, sensorimotor mimesis, and affective/kinaesthetic dynamics respectively. The hypothesis is explained followed by the design approach.

Tremblay, P. A. (2012). A. Mixing the Immiscible: Improvisation within Fixed-Media Composition. In Proceedings of the Electroacoustic Music Studies Conference
The author discusses the use of the studio as an instrument and improvisation within Fixed-Media Composition. The research context is described as PbR and grounds this method within the context of research in general highlighting the relevancy of this method using the example of anthropology. Commenting on the focus of PbR being the artistic object and, in this case music, the writing being somewhat secondary the author states “if the music is not relevant to its community, and does not give by itself new proposals, original questions, clear hypothesis, and innovative answers, to the specialists of that practice, the paper is of little if no use.” The author describes the project, grounding his definition of improvisation in “Post-free-jazz and critical improvisation” and then explaining improvisation in the studio and noting the aesthetic of perfection and the aesthetic of imperfection that the studio and improvisation, respectively, bring to the situation. Liveness and embodiment are described in the studio setting leading to a discussion of the “Aesthesists”, a term used to describe the third generation of computer music creators who are digital natives and do not struggle with the same issues (described in article) that their predecessors did. Four examples of PbR outcomes are then described.



.......................................................
PRACTICE-BASED RESEARCH: Full Bibliography
What is Practice-based Research and its issues?
key readings:

Bennett, D., Wright, D., & Blom, D. (2010). The artistic practice-research-teaching (ART) nexus:Translating the information flow. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 7(2). http://ro.uow.edu.au/jutlp/vol7/iss2/3. Accessed 1 Feb 2013.

Biggs, M., & Buchler, D. (2008). Eight criteria for practice-based research in the creative and cultural industries. Art, Design & Communication in Higher Education, 7(1), 5–18.

The author discusses 8 criteria for PbR, four of which are general it attempt to link PbR to the other forms of academic research, with the remaining four being discipline specific such as to place them in relation to academic research.
The author points out that academic research is cumulative in comparison to “research” that one does to be personally informed (though the knowledge already exists) thus setting up the Isolationist and Situated Positions and then go on to describe the 8 criteria: Questions and answers, Knowledge, Methods, Audiences, Role of text and image, Relationship of form and content, Function of rhetoric, and Function of experience. The author concludes “(t)he notions of originality and dissemination are, therefore, consequences of the axiom of research as a cumulative activity, and the Situated Position of research in CCI (Creative and Cultural Industries).”

Candy, L. (2006). Practice based research: A guide. Report from Creativity and Cognition Studios, University of Technology, Sydney. Retrieved January, 19, 2010.
The author provides a guide for practice-based research in the context of the PHD. Practice-based and Practice-led research are defined in relation to each other, followed by a history of practice-based research. The PHD and knowledge are questioned in relation to practice which is followed by a thesis outline, frequently asked questions in the area, a bibliography, and definitions.

further resources:

Haseman, B. (2006, February). A Manifesto for Performative Research. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=010497030622521;res=IELLCC

Blom, D., Bennett, D., & Wright, D. (2011). How artists working in academia view artistic practice as research: Implications for tertiary music education. International Journal of Music Education, 29(4), 359–373.

Büchler, D., Biggs, M. A., & St\a ahl, L.-H. (2011). A Critical Mapping of Practice-Based Research as Evidenced by Swedish Architectural Theses. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 30(2), 318–327.

Burdick, A., & Willis, H. (2011). Digital learning, digital scholarship and design thinking. Design Studies, 32(6), 546–556. doi:10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.005

Candlin, F. (2000). Practiced-based doctorates and questions of academic legitimacy. Journal of Art and Design Education, 19(1), 96–101.

Collinson, J. A. (2005). Artistry and analysis: student experiences of UK practice‐based doctorates in art and design, 18(6), 713–728.

Edmonds, E. (2010). The art of interaction, 21(4), 257–264.

The author discusses interactive art and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as HCI issues “are as important to interactive art making as issues relating to the colours of paint are to painting”. A brief history of interactive art is reviewed leading to the current situation where an artist is often the member of a team, noting collaborations between artist, researcher and technologist. Interactive art is related to games noting some commonalities and thirteen categories of research results relating to pleasure are outlined. The design aspect of art is discussed noting that artists often require the need to try out their works before they are completed.
The key conclusion is that practice-based research in interactive art informs the next developments of experience design (HCI) research.”

Edmonds, E., & Candy, L. (2010). Relating Theory, Practice and Evaluation in Practitioner Research. Leonardo, 43(5), 470–476.

The author describes a model of PbR that represents the relationship between theory, practice and evaluation, which are outlined. Four examples are discussed, Example 1: Theory Drives Practice—A Framework for Interactive Emergent Experience, Example 2: Practice Drives Theory— A Framework for Interaction with Virtual Instruments, Example 3: Theory and Practice Reflexivity— A Framework for Collaborative Curatorial Practice, and Example 4: Practice and Theory—A Framework for Interactive Play Experience.

Harrison, S. D. (2012). “Letting go”: An auto-ethnography of higher degree supervision in music. International Journal of Music Education, 30(2), 99–110.

Hockey, J. (2003). Art and Design Practice-Based Research Degree Supervision some empirical findings. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 2(2), 173–185.

Hockey, J. (2005). Identity Change: Doctoral students in art and design. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 4(1), 77–93. doi:10.1177/1474022205048759

Hockey, J. (n.d.-a). Practice–Based Research Degree Students in Art and Design: Identity and Adaptation. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 22(1), 82–91.

Irwin, R. L., Beer, R., Springgay, S., Grauer, K., Xiong, G., & Bickel, B. (2006). The Rhizomatic Relations of A/r/tography. Studies in Art Education, 48(1), 70–88. doi:10.2307/25475806

Kaipainen, M. (2004). Practice-based research at the University of Art and Design Helsinki. Digital Creativity, 15(1), 8–9.

Describes (short) PbR @ the U of Art and Design Helsinki

Oddey, A., & Naish, J. (2002). “Paper or practice?”: A dialogue debating key issues of practice as research. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10486800208568690

Paulus, T. (2013). Movements of discovery: the pragmatics of practice-based research. Foundations of Science, 18(1), 179–183. doi:10.1007/s10699-011-9263-6

Piantanida *, M., Tananis, C. A., & Grubs, R. E. (2004). Generating grounded theory of/for educational practice: the journey of three epistemorphs. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(3), 325–346. doi:10.1080/0951839042000204661

Prophet, J. (2004). Re-addressing practice-based research: funding and recognition. Digital Creativity, 15(1), 2–7.

Seevinck, J. (2013). Concepts, Water and Reflections on Practice. Leonardo, 46(5), 494–495.

Spatz, B. (2011). Practice as Research: Foundations for a Community of Knowledge. Dance Research Journal, 43(1), 48–57.

Sullivan, G. (2006). Research Acts in Art Practice. Studies in Art Education, 48(1), 19–35. doi:10.2307/25475803

Thomas, M. (2004). Practice-based research. Digital Creativity, 15(1), 1–1. doi:10.1076/digc.15.1.1.28154

Trowler, P. (2013). Can approaches to research in Art and Design be beneficially adapted for research into higher education? Higher Education Research & Development, 32(1), 56–69. doi:10.1080/07294360.2012.750276

Vanhoutte, K., & Wynants, N. (2011). Performing Phenomenology: Negotiating Presence in Intermedial Theatre. Foundations of Science, 16(2-3), 275–284. doi:10.1007/s10699-010-9193-8


Woolford, K., Blackwell, A. F., Norman, S. J., & Chevalier, C. (2010). Crafting a Critical Technical Practice. Leonardo, 43(2), 202–203.

Live Coding references in the context of practice-based research:
key readings:

further resources:
Bown, O. (2011). A. Experiments in Modular Design for the Creative Composition of Live Algorithms. Computer Music Journal, 35(3), 73–85.

Alex. (n.d.). Visualisation of Live Code. Alex McLean. Retrieved from http://yaxu.org/visualisation-of-live-code/
The author describes approaches to code visualisation within the live coding context. A brief description of LC is given then moving into the issue of “lack of performance” that accompanies computer music (laptop performance) and LCs response of revealing the code. The author goes on to describe some of the enhancements to text editors that have evolved them into IDE (interactive development environments) and how we interpret and understand the structure of code raising the issue of symbols, shape and geometry in computation. Four novel visual/geometric live coding systems are described. The author “confront(s) how code is perceived by performers and audiences, and in what ways visual elements contribute to the primary syntax and semantics of a programming language meant for live coding.” The author concludes that visualisation of live code is under-investigated in terms of the psychology of programming and that this is a fertile area for practice-based research.

McLean, A., & Wiggins, G. (2009). Patterns of movement in live languages. Retrieved from http://doc.gold.ac.uk/~ma503am/writing/chart.pdf
The author describes live coding, the prehistory of live coding moving on to compare textual vs visual programming languages and the (in)accurateness of this description. The author discusses the experience of computational abstractions over time for the performer and the audience. The author describes this work as research based practice and practice based research in its infancy.

Descriptions of projects using Practice based research:
key readings:
Edmonds, E. A., Weakley, A., Candy, L., Fell, M., Knott, R., & Pauletto, S. (2005). The studio as laboratory: Combining creative practice and digital technology research. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63(4-5), 452–481. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2005.04.012
The author discusses “interaction tools in the context of software environments for creative practices” and concludes that programming, rather than software use, is necessary which included the need for “visual representations of the code, persistent data and interpreted, rather than compiled, systems.” The author describes a practice-based research method stating “(t)he outcomes of the COSTART project lead us to believe that a methodology for combining research and practice can be successful in generating both research results and creative artefacts.”

Embodied Schemas for Cross-modal Mapping in the Design of Gestural Controllers | ISEA2011 Istanbul. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from https://isea2011.sabanciuniv.edu/paper/embodied-schemas-cross-modal-mapping-design-gestural-controllers

The author discusses the context and background of Embodied Cognition in relation to creating PbR that explores the experience of digital instruments that control the timbre of synthesized sound. The background of Embodied Cognition is provided which leads to the authors focus on Image Schemata, conceptual blending, sensorimotor mimesis, and affective/kinaesthetic dynamics respectively. The hypothesis is explained followed by the design approach.

Tremblay, P. A. (2012). A. Mixing the Immiscible: Improvisation within Fixed-Media Composition. In Proceedings of the Electroacoustic Music Studies Conference
The author discusses the use of the studio as an instrument and improvisation within Fixed-Media Composition. The research context is described as PbR and grounds this method within the context of research in general highlighting the relevancy of this method using the example of anthropology. Commenting on the focus of PbR being the artistic object and, in this case music, the writing being somewhat secondary the author states “if the music is not relevant to its community, and does not give by itself new proposals, original questions, clear hypothesis, and innovative answers, to the specialists of that practice, the paper is of little if no use.” The author describes the project, grounding his definition of improvisation in “Post-free-jazz and critical improvisation” and then explaining improvisation in the studio and noting the aesthetic of perfection and the aesthetic of imperfection that the studio and improvisation, respectively, bring to the situation. Liveness and embodiment are described in the studio setting leading to a discussion of the “Aesthesists”, a term used to describe the third generation of computer music creators who are digital natives and do not struggle with the same issues (described in article) that their predecessors did. Four examples of PbR outcomes are then described.

Further Resources:

Caplan, P. (n.d.). Chasing Protocol: Actants, the Hyphen and Practice-Research. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/30851623/Chasing_Protocol_ASCA.pdf

Callesen, J. (2004). From lab to stage: practice-based research in performance, 15(1), 32–38.

The author describes the research project of developing performance animation and motion-capture technology into a live performance capacity.

Dade-Robertson, M. (2004). Digital mnemonics, 15(1), 57–62.
Dirkx, J. M. (2006). Studying the Complicated Matter of What Works: Evidence-Based Research and the Problem of Practice. Adult Education Quarterly, 56(4), 273–290. doi:10.1177/0741713606289358
Hamp, A. E. (2013). Personal Is Political, Practice as Critical: The freedom of information Performer as Site for Change and Discourse. Theatre Topics, 23(2), 185–196. doi:10.1353/tt.2013.0021
King, B. (2013). Close/Clown Encounters with History: From Mimesis to Kinesis in Practice as Research. Theatre Topics, 23(2), 113–128. doi:10.1353/tt.2013.0025
Madrid, M. (2012). Paradox in A/r/tography: Collective Short Animated Film-Making for Social Inclusion. Visual Arts Research, 38(2), 58–68.
Marshall, J. (2007). Image as Insight: Visual Images in Practice-Based Research. Studies in Art Education, 49(1), 23–41. doi:10.2307/25475852
Nitsche, M. (2004). Spatial structuring, cinematic mediation, and evocative narrative elements in the design of an RT 3D VE: The Common Tales Project, 15(1), 52–56.
Nitsche, M. (2013). Performance art and digital media. Digital Creativity, 24(2), 93–95. doi:10.1080/14626268.2013.806333
Pelo, R. (2004). Marina’s Garden: interactive narrative as a drama of responsibility and interruption. Digital Creativity, 15(1), 18–20.
Penz, F. (2004). The architectural promenade as narrative device: practice based research in architecture and the moving image, 15(1), 39–51.
Smith, M. (2006). Journeys, Documenting, Indexing, Archives, and Practice-Based Research: A Conversation with susan pui san lok, 65(4), 18–35.
Tikka, P. (2004). (Interactive) cinema as a model of mind. Digital Creativity, 15(1), 14–17.


Meaning and Meaningfulness in Electroacoustic Music, Stockholm, June 2012. Stockholm, Sweden. Retrieved from http://www.ems-network.org/spip.php?article350
Tuomola, M. “Lumi.” (2004). Cooking in the Crucible, 15(1), 10–13.
Walker, J. (2004). Ephemeral architectures: the body and landscape in augmented reality. Research in Mathematics Education, 15(2), 93–97.
Westfall JM, Mold J, & Fagnan L. (2007). PRactice-based research—“blue highways” on the nih roadmap. JAMA, 297(4), 403–406. doi:10.1001/jama.297.4.403
Williams, R. (n.d.). Digital Resources for Practice‐based Research: The New Comedy Masks Project. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 19(3), 415–426.
Williams, R., & Vervain, C. (1999). Masks for Menander: Imaging and Imagining Greek Comedy. Digital Creativity, 10(3), 180–182.