Audio Programming Languages (alphabetical)


  • Sorensen, Andrew. (2005) "Impromptu: An interactive programming environment for composition and performance." Australasian Computer Music Conference 2005, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 149–53.


PD (Pure Data)


Other Articles

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Backus, J.W., et al (1957) "The FORTRAN automatic coding system." In Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference (Los Angeles, CA).

Mathews, M. (1961) "An acoustic compiler for music and psychological stimuli." Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 677-694.

Pierce, John. (1961) Symbols, Signals and Noise. New York: Harper and Rowe.

Moore, Richard F. (1963) "Electronic Music - An Introduction." Carnegie Technical, 40-45.

Pierce, J. (1968) Science, Art and Communication. Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.

Mathews, M. (1969) The Technology of Computer Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mathews, M. and Moore, F. R. (1970) "GROOVE - a program to compose, store, and edit functions of time." Communications of the ACM, 13(2).

Sammet, J. (1972) "Programming Languages: History and Future." Communications of the ACM, 15(7).

Moore, F. R., Mathews, M. and Risset, J-C. (1974) "Computers and Future Music." Science [Journal], 183: 263-268.

Openheim, A. and Schafer, R. (1975) Digital Signal Processing. New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall.

Howe, H. (1975) Electronic Music Synthesis. New York, NY: Norton.

Loy, Gareth (1975) "The all-digital recording studio at Stanford University." In Proceedings of the 1976 ICMC (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA).

Sammet, J. (1976) "Roster of programming languages for 1974-75." Communications of the ACM, 19(2): 655-669

Moorer, J. A. (1977) "On the Transcription of Musical Sound by Computer." Computer Music Journal, 1(4): 32-38.

Loy, G. (1977) "Studio report, CCRMA, Stanford University." In Proceedings of the 1977 ICMC (University of California, San Diego, USA).

Lawson, J. and Mathews, M. (1977) "Computer Program to Control a Digital Real-Time Synthesizer." Computer Music Journal, 1(7).

Moore, F. R. (1978) "An Introduction to the Mathematics of Digital Signal Processing, Part I: Algebra, Trigonometry, and the Most Beautiful Formula in Mathematics." Computer Music Journal, 2(1): 38-47.

Moore, F. R. (1978) "An Introduction to the Mathematics of Digital Signal Processing, Part II: Sampling, Transforms, and Digital Filtering." Computer Music Journal 2(2): 38-60.

Bennett, G. (1978) "La recherche à l'Ircam en 1977." IRCAM online article.

Caussé, R. (1978) "Unité électronique destinée à la transformation du son en temps réel et contrôlable par l'instrumentiste." IRCAM online article.

Gardner, J.K., Harvey, B., Lawson, J.R. and J-C Risset. (1978) "Computer Facilities for Music at IRCAM, as of October 1977." IRCAM online article.

Risset, J-C. (1978) "The Development of Digital Techniques: A Turning Point for Electronic Music?" Rapport IRCAM. Paris: IRCAM.

Mathews, M. and Bennett, G. (1978) "Real-Time Synthesizer Control." IRCAM online article.

Bennett, G. (1979) "La recherche à l'Ircam en 1978." IRCAM online article.

Pierce, J. with Posner, E. C. (1980) Introduction to Communication Science and Systems. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp.

Haynes, S. (1980) "The Computer as a Sound Processor." IRCAM online article.

[Unknown]. (1980) "La recherche à l'Ircam en 1979." IRCAM online article.

Mathews, M. (1980) "The Sequential Drum." IRCAM online article.

Roads, C. (1980) "Interview with Max Mathews." (1980) Computer Music Journal, 4.

Mathews, M. and Pierce, J. (1980) "Harmony and Nonharmonic Partials." IRCAM online article.

Truax, B. (1980a) "The Inverse Relation Between Generality and Strength in Computer Music Programs." Interface, 9(1): 49-57.

Loy, G. (1981) "The Composer Seduced into Programming." Perspectives of New Music 19(1-2): 184-198. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.

Moore, F.R. (1981) "Musical Signal Processing in a UNIX Environment." In Proceedings of the International Music and Technology Conference, University of Melbourne, Australia, p. 89-111.

Puckette, M. Vercoe, B. and Stautner, J. (1981) "A real-time music11 emulator." In Proceedings of the 1981 ICMC (North Texas State University, USA), p. 292.

Chowning, J. (1981) "La nouvelle musique et la science: interdépendance des concepts." Le compositeur et l'ordinateur, p. 33-37. Paris: IRCAM.

Pierce, J. (1981) Signals, The Telephone and Beyond. New York: Freeman.

Sammet, J. (1981) "An overview of high-level languages." Advances in Computers, Vol. 20, p. 199-259.

Vercoe, B.L. (1982) "New dimensions in computer music." Trends and Perspectives in Signal Processing, 2(2): 15-23.

Vercoe, B. L. (1983) "Computer Systems and Languages for Audio Research." The New World of Digital Audio (Audio Engineering Society Special Edition), p. 245-250.

Vercoe, B. L. (1984) "The synthetic performer in the context of live performance." In Proceedings of the 1984 ICMC Conference (IRCAM, Paris, France), p. 199-200.

Puckette, M. (1984) "The 'M' Orchestra Language." In Proceedings of the 1984 ICMC (IRCAM, Paris, France), p. 17-20.

Pierce, J. and Inose, H. (1984) Information Technology and Civilization. New York, NY: Freeman.

Roads, Curtis (1985) Composers and the Computer. Madison, WI: A-R Editions.

Vercoe, B. L. and Puckette, M. S. (1985) "Synthetic rehearsal: Training the synthetic performer." In Proceedings of the 1985 ICMC (Simon Fraser University, Canada), p. 275-278.

Loy, Gareth (1985) "MIDI: a critical overview." Musical Acoustics III: Real-Time Music Synthesizers, Acoustical Society of America, 77(1): S74.

Dodge, C. and Jerse, T. (1985) Computer Music. New York?: Schirmer Books.

Loy, Gareth. (1985) "Programming languages for computer music synthesis, performance and composition." ACM Computing Surveys, 17(2).

Loy, Gareth. (1985) "Designing an operating environment for a real-time performance processing system." In Proceedings of the 1985 ICMC (Simon Frasier University, Canada).

Moore, F. R. (1985) "The FRMbox: A Modular Digital Music Synthesizer." In Digital Audio Engineering: An Anthology (J. Strawn, ed.). William Kaufmann, Inc.

Lerdahl, F. and Potard, Y. (1986) "La composition assistée par ordinateur." IRCAM online article.

Puckette, M. (1986) "Interprocess Communication and Timing in Real-Time Computer Music Performance." In Proceedings of the 1986 ICMC (The Hague, The Netherlands).

Anderson, D. Kuivila, R. (1986) "A model of real-time computation for computer music." In Proceedings of the 1986 ICMC (The Hague, The Netherlands).

Boynton, L. et al (1986) "Midi-lisp: A lisp-based music programming environment for the Macintosh." In Proceedings of the 1986 ICMC (The Hague, The Netherlands).

Ghezzi, C. and Javayeri, M. (1987) Programming Language Concepts, Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Orton, R. and Malham, D. G. (1987) "Mainframe Computer Music on Microcomputers." Audio Engineering Society E-Library, Paper 2479.

Zicarelli, D. (1987) "M and Jam Factory." Computer Music Journal, 11(4): 13-29.

Moore, F. R. (1988) "The Dysfunctions of MIDI." Computer Music Journal, 12(2): 19-28.

Boulez, P. and Gerzso, A. (1988) "Computers in Music." Scientific American, 258(4). Holtzbrinck/IRCAM.

Puckette, M. (1988) "The Patcher." In Proceedings of the 1988 ICMC (GMIMIK Cologne, Germany).

Davis, D. S. (1988) Computer Applications in Music: A Bibliography. Madison, WI: A-R Editions.

Loy, Gareth (1989) "Composing with Computers - A Survey of Some Compositional Formalisms and Music Programming Languages." Current Directions in Computer Music Research (Mathews, M.V. & Pierce, J.R. (eds.) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p. 291-396.

Mathews, M. and Pierce, J. (eds). (1989) Current Directions in Computer Music Research. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Barriere, J-B., Baisnee, P-F., Freed, A. and Baudot, M-D. (1989) "A Digital Signal Multiprocessory and its Musical Application." In Proceedings of the 1989 ICMC (Ohio State University, USA).

Vercoe, B. L. and Ellis, D. P. W. (1990) "Real-time Csound: Software synthesis with sensing and control." In Proceedings of the 1990 ICMC (University of Glasgow, Scotland), p. 209-211.

Meyer, B. (1990) Introduction to the Theory of Programming Languages. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Moore, R. F. (1990) Elements of Computer Music. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Puckette, M. (1990) "EXPLODE: A User Interface for Sequencing and Score Following." IRCAM online article.

Viara, E. and Puckette, M. (1990) "A Real-Time Operating System for Computer Music." In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Glasgow, Scotland).

Lindemann, E., Starkier, M. and Déchelle, F. (1990) "The Ircam Musical Workstation: Hardware Overview and Signal Processing Features." In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Glasgow, Scotland).

Genuys, F. (1990) "L'informatique musicale." Revue L'arc - Xenakis, no. 51. Paris: Duponchelle.

Freed, A., Wessel, D. and Zicarelli, D. (1991) "Max Objects for Media Integration." In Proceedings of the ICMC (McGill University, Montreal, Canada), p. 397-400.

Lee, M., Freed, A. and Wessel, D. (1991) "Real-Time Neural Network Processing of Gestural and Acoustic Signals." In Proceedings of the ICMC (McGill University, Montreal, Canada).

Schultz, C. (1991) "Opcode MAX: Interactive Graphic Programming Environment (Macintosh)." Keyboard Magazine, May 1991.

Wessel, D. (1991) "Improvisation with Highly Interactive Real-Time Performance Systems." In Proceedings of the ICMC (McGill University, Montreal, Canada).

Piché, J. and DesMeures, S. (1991) "MAXGen: A graphical MAX object for the generation and editing of complex continuous functions." In Proceedings of the ICMC (McGill University, Montreal, Canada).

Puckette, M. (1991) "Combining Event and Signal Processing in the Max Graphical Programming Environment." Computer Music Journal, 15(3): 68-77.

Lindemann, E. et al (1991) "The architecture of the Ircam music workstation." Computer Music Journal, 15(3): 41-49.

Loy, Gareth (1992) "The Frox Digital Audio System." In Proceedings of the ICMC (San Jose State University, USA).

Pierce, John (1992) The Science of Musical Sound (Second Edition) [Scientific American Books]. New York: Freeman.

Zicarelli, D. and Lee, M. A. (1992) "The Max Timeline Object." In Proceedings of the ICMC (Tokyo, Japan),
p. 453-456.

Lippe, C., Puckette, M., Settel, Z., Puig, V., and Jullien, J-P. (1993) "The IRCAM signal processing workstation and IRCAM Max user groups: future developments and platforms." In Proceedings of the ICMC (Tokyo, Japan), p. 446-448.

Dobson, R. W. (1993) "The Operation of the Phase Vocoder - a non-mathematical introduction to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)." Composer's Desktop Project.

Fatus, Claude (1993) "La station informatique musicale." Résonance, no. 4. Paris: IRCAM.

Desain, P. et al. (1993) "Editor's Notes: Putting Max in Perspective." Computer Music Journal, 17(2): 3-11.

Wishart, Trevor (1994) Audible Design: A Plain and Easy Introduction to Sound Composition. York, UK: Orpheus the Pantomine Ltd.

Puckette, M. (1994) "Is there life after MIDI?" In Proceedings of the ICMC (DIEM, Denmark), p. 2.

Déchelle, F., de Cecco, M., Puckette, M. and Zicarelli, D. (1994) "The IRCAM "Real-Time Platform" : Evolution and Perspectives." In Proceedings of the ICMC (DIEM, Denmark).

Lippe, C. (1994) "Real-time Granular Sampling Using the IRCAM Signal Processing Workstation." Contemporary Music Review 10(2): 149-155.

Miranda, E. R. (1995) "Granular Synthesis of Sounds by Means of a Cellular Automaton." Leonardo, 28(4): 297-300.

Déchelle, F. and de Cecco, M. (1995) "The Ircam Real-Time Platform and Applications." In Proceedings of the ICMC (Banff Centre for the Arts, Canada).

Pope, S. T. (1996). "Object-Oriented Music Representation." Organised Sound, 1(1): 55-68.

Wishard, T. (1996) On Sonic Art (Simon Emmerson, ed.). London: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Roads, Curtis (1996) Computer Music Tutorial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Vercoe, B. L. (1996) "Extended Csound." In Proceedings of the ICMC (Hong Kong, China), p. 141-42.

Orton, R. (1996) "Design Strategies for Algorithmic Composition." Contemporary Music Review, 15(3-4): 39-48.

Schaffer, J. W. and McGee, D. (1997) Knowledge-based programming for music research. Madison, WI: A-R Editions.

Roads, C., S. Pope, A. Picialli and G. Poli (eds.). (1997) Musical Signal Processing. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger.

Puckette, M. (1997) "Pure Data: recent progress." In Proceedings, Third Intercollege Computer Music Festival (Tokyo, Japan), p. 1-4.

McCartney, James (1997) "Synthesis Without Lookup Tables." Computer Music Journal, 21(3): 5-6.

Miranda, E. R. (1997) "Machine Learning and Sound Design: A Case Study." Leonardo Music Journal, 7:49-55.

Endrich, A. (1997) "Composer's Desktop Project: A Musical Imperative." Organised Sound, 2(1): 29-33.

Delerue, Olivier (1997) "Étude et réalisation d'opérateurs musicaux pour un environnement de composition assistée par ordinateur." Dissertation, IRCAM.

Wright, M. and Freed, A. (1997) "Open SoundControl: A New Protocol for Communicating with Sound Synthesizers." In Proceedings of the ICMC (Thessaloniki, Greece), p. 101-4.

Vercoe, B. L., Gardner, W. G. and Scheirer, E. D. (1998) "Structured audio: The creation, transmission, and rendering of parametric sound representations." In Proceedings of the IEEE, 85(5): 922-940.

Schreirer, E. D. and Vercoe, B. L. (1998) "The MPEG-4 Structured Audio Orchestra Language." In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA).

Orton, R. (1998) "Choice and Chance in Algorithmic Composition." Workshop on Compositional Use of Computers (University of Limerick, Ireland).

Miranda, E. R. (1998) Computer Sound Synthesis for the Electronic Musician. Oxford, UK: Focal Press.

Corlaix, Omer (1998) "Le Cursus de composition et d'informatique musicale à l'Ircam." Résonance no. 14, Paris: IRCAM.

McCartney, James (1998) "Continued Evolution of the SuperCollider Real-Time Synthesis Environment." In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA).

Assayag, Gérard (1998) "Computer-Assisted Composition Today." 1st Symposium on Music and Computers (Corfu, Greece).

Szendy, Peter (1998) "Musique, temps réel." Résonance, no. 14. Paris: IRCAM

Dechelle, F. et al (1998) "jMax: a new JAVA-based editing and control system for real-time musical applications." In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA).

Dechelle, F et al (1998) "jMax: demonstration of an integrated environment for real-time musical applications." In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA).

Puckette, M. S., Theodore Apel, David D. Zicarelli (1998). "Real-time audio analysis tools for Pd and MSP." In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA).

Zicarelli, David (1998) "An Extensible Real-Time Signal Processing Environment for Max." In Proceedings of the ICMC (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA).

Burton, A. R. and Vladmirova, T. (1999) "Generation of Musical Sequences with Genetic Techniques." Computer Music Journal, 23(4): 59-73.

Scheirer, E. D. and Vercoe, B. L. (1999) "SAOL: The MPEG-4 Structured Audio Orchestra Language." Computer Music Journal, 23(2): 31-51.

Wright, M., Khoury, S., Wang, R., Zicarelli, D. (1999) "Supporting the Sound Description Interchange Format in the Max/MSP Environment." In Proceedings of the ICMC (Beijing, China), p. 182-85.

Miranda, E. R., McAlpine, K., and Hoggar, S. (1999) "Making Music with Algorithms: A Case Study." Computer Music Journal, 23(2): 19-30.

Tisserand, P. (1999) "Implémentation de Modèles Physiques sous environnement temps-réel jMax." Rapport de stage, Stage de l'École ENSM de Nancy.

Tisserand, P. (1999) "Utilisation de jMax." Rapport de stage, Stage de l'École ENSM de Nancy.

Iovino, F., Schnell, N. and Lartillot, O. (1999) "Modalys in jMax: real-time modal-synthesis." In Proceedings of the ICMC (Beijing, China).

Lefford, N., Scheirer, E. D. and Vercoe, B. L. (1999) "An Interview with Barry Vercoe." Experimental Music Studio [Journal], Vol. 25. Machine Listening Group, MIT.

Chaudary, A., Freed, A. and Wright, M. (1999) "An Open Architecture for Real-Time Audio Processing Software." Audio Engineering Society, 107th Convention, New York, NY.

Miranda, E. R. (2000) Readings in Music and Artificial Intelligence. London: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Miranda, E. R. (2001) Composing Music with Computers. Oxford: Focal Press.

Zicarelli, D. (2002) "How I Learned to Love a Program That Does Nothing." Computer Music Journal, 26:4: 22-51.

Zicarelli, D. (2002) "Developing Plug-ins in Max/MSP for Pluggo." San Francisco: Cycling '74.

Rowe, Robert (2002) "Review: Composing Music with Computers." Computer Music Journal, 26(4).

Bryant, R. and O'Hallaron, D. (2003) Computer Systems: A Programmer's Perspective. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Burns, K. H. (2004) "Algorithmic Composition." Online article.

Zmölnig, Johannes. (2004) "Gem for pd: recent progress."

Wang, G. and Cook, P. R. (2004) "Audicle: A Context-sensitive, On-the-fly Audio Programming Environ/mentality." In Proceedings of the ICMC (Miami, USA), p. 256-63.

Puckette, M. (2004) "Who Owns our Software?: A First-Person Case Study." ISEA 2004 Online Proceedings.

Ffitch, J. (2005) "On the design of Csound5." In Proceedings of the Third International Linux Audio Conference, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Puckette, M. (2006) "Computing While Composing." Preface to the OM Composer's Book. Paris: Éditions Delatour / IRCAM.

Wang, G., A. Misra, and P. R. Cook (2006) "Building Collaborative interFaces in the Audicle." In Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (Paris, France).

Miranda, E. R. and Wanderley, M. M. (2006) New Digital Musical Instruments: Control and Interaction Beyond the Keyboard. Madison, WI: A-R Editions.

Lazzarini, V. (2007) "Review: New Digital Instruments: Control and Interaction Beyond the Keyboard." Computer Music Journal, 31(4): 75-77.

Puckette, M. (2007) The Theory and Techniques of Electronic Music. World Scientific Press.

Wang, G., Fiebrink, R. and Cook, P. R. (2007) "Combining Analysis and Synthesis in the ChucK Programming Language." In Proceedings of the ICMC (Copenhagen, Denmark).

Fiebrink, R., Wang, G. and Cook, P. R. (2008) "Support for MIR Prototyping and Real-time Applications of the ChucK Programming Language." In Proceedings of the International Conference on Music Information Retrieval (Philadelphia, USA).

Anders, T. and Miranda, E. R. (2009) "Interfacing Manual and Machine Composition." Contemporary Music Review, 28(2): 133-147.

Miranda, E. R. (2010) "Organised Sound, Mental Imageries and the Future of Music Technology: A Neuroscience Outlook." Organised Sound, 15(1): 13-25.

Anders, T. and Miranda, E. R. (2010) "Constraint Application with Higher-Order Programming for Modeling Music Theories." Computer Music Journal, 34(2): 25-38.

Miranda, E. R. (2011) A-Life for Music: Music and Computer Models of Living Systems. Middleton, WI: A-R Editions.

Anders, T. and Miranda, E. R. (2011) "A Computational Model for Rule-Based Microtonal Music Theories and Composition." Perspectives of New Music, 48(2): 47-77.

Anders, T. and Miranda, E. R. (2011) "A Survey of Constraint Programming Systems for Modeling Music Theories and Composition." ACM Computing Surveys, 43(4), Article 30.

Special Issues of Journals

H. Pousseur (ed.), (1977) La musica elettronica. Testi scelti e commentati da Henri
Pousseur, Feltrinelli, Milano. (Articles compiled into book by Henri Pousseur)

Hiller, Lejaren. (1976) "Computer programming for musical composition."
Mathews, Max V. (1976) "The technology of computer music."
Zinoviev, Peter (1976) "The study of digitally controlled electronic music."
Chowning, John (1976) "The simulation of moving sound sources."
Koenig, Gottfired. M. (1976) "Methodology of work in the Utrecht electronic music studio."
Tenney, James (1976) "Experimenting with computer music 1961-64."

"Le compositeur et l'ordinateur" (Proceedings from conference held at IRCAM from 17-21 February, 1981).

Machover, Tod (1981) "Le compositeur et l'ordinateur: quelques réflexions."
Dufourt, Hugues (1981) "Les difficultés d'une prise de conscience théorique."
Chowning, John (1981) "La nouvelle musique et la science: interdépendence des concepts."
Mailliard, Bénédict (1981) "Un studio numérique de travail sur le son."
Boulez, Pierre (1981) "L'in(dé)fini et l'instant."
Ferneyhough, Brian (1981) "Compositeur-ordinateur-forme active."
Minsky, Marvin (1981) "La musique, les structures mentales et le sens."
Battier, Marc (1981) "Bibliographie."

Computer Music Journal, Vol. 15, No. 4 (1991): "Dream Machines: John Pierce at 80"

Wood, P. and Pierce, J. R. (1991) "Recollections with John Robinson Pierce."
Pierce, J. (1991) "Surprises and Music."
Risset, J.-C. (1991) "Some Comments About Future Music Machines."
Mathews, M. V. (1991) "The Radio Baton and Conductor Program."
Goebel, J. (1991) "My Dream (Machine?)"
Wessel, D. (1991) "Instruments That Learn, Refined Controllers, and Source Model Loudspeakers."
Zicarelli, D. (1991) "Communicating with meaningless numbers."
Rodet, X. (1991) "What Would We Like to See Our Music Machines Capable of Doing?"
Chafe, C. (1991) "Dream Machine 1990."
Puckette, M. (1991) "Something Digital."

Les Cahiers de l'IRAM (Recherche et musique), no. 1 (1992): "Composition et environnements informatiques."

Authors include: Tristan Murail, Philippe Manoury, Andrew Gerzso, Marc Battier, Jean-Baptiste Barrière et Frédéric Durieux.

Les Cahiers de l'IRCAM (Recherche et musique), no. 2 (1993): "La synthèse sonore."

Authors include: Kaija Saariaho, Jean-Claude Risset, Daniel Arfib, Richard Kronland-Martinet, Julius Orion Smith III et Gerhard Eckel, Curtis Roads, Marie-Hélène Serra, Philippe Depalle, Xavier Rodet, Anne Luciani.

Les Cahiers de l'IRCAM (Recherche et musique), no. 3 (1993): "La composition assistée par ordinateur"

Assayag, G. (1993) "Cao: vers la partition potentielle."
Cohen-Lévinas, Danielle (1993) "Entertien avec Marco Stroppa."
Courtot, Francis (1993) "Entre le décomposé et l'incomposable."
Mesnage, M. et Riotte, A. (1993) "Modélisation informatique de partitions, analyse et composition assistée."
Rahn, J. (1993) "Le compositeur et ses AMIs."

Contemporary Music Review, Vol. 22, Part 3 (2003): "Evolutionary Music: At the Crossroads of Evolutionary Computing and Musicology."

Sharman, K. and Esparcia-Alcazar, A. (2003) "Evolutionary Methods for Designing Digital Filters", p. 5-19.
Horner, A. (2003) "Auto-Programmable FM and Wavetable Synthesis", p. 21-29.
Woolf, S. and Yee-Kim, M. (2003) "Virtual and Physical Interfaces for Collaborative Evolution of Sound", p. 31-41.
Gartland-Jones, A. and Copley, P. (2003) "The Suitability of Genetic Algorithms for Musical Composition", p. 43-55.
Berry, R. and Dahlstedt, P. (2003) "Artifical Life: Why Should Musicians Bother?", p. 57-67.
Mandelis, J. and Husbands, P. (2003) "Musical Interaction with Artificial Life Forms: Sound Synthesis and Performance Mappings", p. 69-77.


Moore, F. R. (1985) Programming in C with a Bit of UNIX. Prentice-Hall.

Kerningham, B. and Ritchie, D. (1988) The ANSI C Programming Language. Prentice-Hall.

De Furia, S. and Sciacciaferro, J. (1989) MIDI Programmers Handbook. M & T Publishing.

Stroustrop, B. (1991) The C++ Programming Language, Second Edition. Addison-Wesley.

Vercoe, B. L. (1994) Csound: A Manual for the Audio-Processing System. MIT Media Lab.

Steiglitz, K. (1996) A Digital Signal Processing Primer. Prentice-Hall.

Vercoe, B. L. (1996) Extended Csound: A Manual for the Audio-Processing System and DSP Realtime Extensions. Norwood, MA: Analog Devices, Inc.

Knuth, D. (1998) The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms, second edition. Addison-Wesley.

Knuth, D. (1998) The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms, second edition. Addison-Wesley.

Knuth, D. (1998) The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 3: Sorting and Searching, second edition. Addison Wesley.

Stones, R. and Matthew, N. (2000) Beginning Linux Programming. Wrox.

Boulanger, Richard (ed.) (2000) The Csound Book: Perspectives in Software Synthesis, Sound Design, Signal Processing and Programming. MIT Press.

Miranda, Eduardo (2000) Computer Sound Synthesis for the Electronic Musician. Oxford, UK: Focal Press.

  • Comprehensive survey of computer techniques and software for synthesising and working with sound.

Miranda, Eduardo (2002) Computer Sound Design – Synthesis Techniques and Programming. Oxford, UK: Focal Press.

  • This is the second edition of Computer Sound Synthesis for the Electronic Musician and contains much new material with many diagrams, and offers particularly clearly written explanations of technical matters.

Orton, Richard (2003) “Review: Computer Sound Design: Synthesis Techniques and Programming.” Organised Sound, Vol. 8(3): 331-333.

Loy, Gareth. (2006) Musimathics: The Mathematical Foundations of Music, Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Agon, C., Assayeg, G., Bresson, J. (Eds.) (2006) The OM Composer’s Book, Vol. 1. Éditions Delatour France / IRCAM.

  • The OM Composer's Book is a collection of essays about computer music composition written by composers. Each chapter provides the description of the musical work making use of "computer-aided composition" (CAC) tools, and more specifically of OpenMusic (OM), a visual programming environment for music composition developed by the Music Representations research group at IRCAM. Through the description of a personal compositional approach or a particular composition, the authors address a large diversity of problems related to symbolic computation techniques, data structures, discrete mathematics algorithms, and many other topics.

Loy, Gareth (2007) Musimathics: The Mathematical Foundations of Music, Vol. 2. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bresson, J., Agon, C., Assayag, G. (Eds.) (2008) The OM Composer’s Book, Vol. 2. Éditions Delatour France / IRCAM.

Cipriani, A. and Giri, M. (2010) Electronic music and sound design: Theory and Practice with Max/MSP, Vol. 1 (Foreword by David Zicarelli). Contemponet.

Farnell, Andy (2010) Designing Sound. MIT Press.

  • Designing Sound teaches students and professional sound designers to understand and create sound effects starting from nothing. Its thesis is that any sound can be generated from first principles, guided by analysis and synthesis. The text takes a practitioner's perspective, exploring the basic principles of making ordinary, everyday sounds using an easily accessed free software.

Boulanger, R. and Lazzarini, V. (eds.) (2010) The Audio Programming Book (Foreword by Max Mathews). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • This monumental publication contains clear and precise information about programming audio applications, which should be of great benefit to and may very well mark a turning point for the next generation of composer-programmers.

Wilson, S., Cottle, D. and Collins, N. (eds.) (2011) The SuperCollider Book. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Collective. (2011) Audio Programming Languages, Including: Mathematica, Csound, SuperCollider, ChucK, Real-Time CMIX, Music-N, Max (Software), Pure Data, Jsyn, Hierarchi. Hephaestus Books.

  • Hephaestus Books represents a new publishing paradigm, allowing disparate content sources to be curated into cohesive, relevant, and informative books. To date, this content has been curated from Wikipedia articles and images under Creative Commons licensing, although as Hephaestus Books continues to increase in scope and dimension, more licensed and public domain content is being added.

Deitel H. and Deitel P. (2012) C: How to Program (1-7 editions). Prentice Hall.

Deitel, H. and Deitel, P. (2013) C++: How to Program (1-8 editions). Prentice-Hall.